Mukden Medical College



The Mukden Medical College (sometimes spelled Moukden Medical College), was founded in Mukden (now Shenyang) north eastern China in 1911 by the Scottish physician Dugald Christie. It officially opened in 1912 and became part of the China Medical University in 1949. 

As described in "A brief History of Mukden Medical College - Fengtian yi ki da xue", published in Shenyang in 1992, the Mukden Medical College grew out of the Mukden Hospital, both of which were founded by Dr Dugald Christie, a Scottish missionary doctor, whose son, Ronald,  later became Dean of Medicine at McGill University in Montreal.  Dr. Christie, who was supported by the Edinburgh-based United Presbyterian Church, opened a 12-bed hospital in Mukden (now called Shenyang) in 1883 - the Sheng Jing Hospital.  Once this hospital was established a few young men were enrolled as apprentices and, after three years of study, they were given certificates as medical assistants, pharmacists or nursing aides.  In 1892 eight young men were enrolled for a 5-year program and a preliminary medical school, Sheng Jing Medical School, was established.  After considerable effort by Dr. Christie and many set-backs this developed into a more formal medical school. In 1911 a four-story building was completed and the new College opened, as the Mukden Medical College (MMC) in 1912.  One of the College's first students, and later the Medical Superintendent of its hospital, was Liu T'ung-lun. His obituary, written by Agatha Crawford, is here.

Two papers  on its history, by David Crawford, appeared in parts 1 and 2 of volume 36 (2006) of the Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.  The abstracts of these papers are:

Part 1.  1882-1917  -  building the foundations and opening the College.

Scottish physician Dugald Christie, an 1881 licentiate of both the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, was the first medical missionary sent to China by the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland. He commenced practice in the city of Mukden (Shenyang) in Manchuria in 1883 when he founded the Sheng Jing Hospital - where he trained 'apprentices'.  In 1892 he started to train student assistants in a more formal way and in 1911 founded the Mukden Medical College (Fengtian yi ke da xue).  Edinburgh-trained physicians and surgeons largely staffed this college, the first Western medical school in Manchuria. 

Part 2.  1918-1949 -  expansion, occupation, liberation and merger.

Scottish physician Dugald Christie commenced practice in the city of Mukden (Shenyang) in Manchuria in 1883.  In 1911 he founded the Mukden Medical College, the first Western medical school in Manchuria.  Edinburgh-trained physicians and surgeons largely staffed the college and in 1934 it became the first foreign university to have its medical degree recognized by the University of Edinburgh.  During the Japanese occupation of NE China, the MMC was mainly run by its Chinese staff and was 'supervised' by the Japanese authorities.(Subsequent to the articles in the JRCPE being published an account of the College during the years of the Japanese occupation has been found. It has some additional information about a period that is less documented; as it is not easy to locate it can be read at THIS link.)

MMC was merged into the China Medical University (Zhongguo yi ke da xue) in 1949.  During its separate existence the Mukden Medical College brought modern medicine and medical education to northeastern China, and its legacy continues to influence both medical practice and medical education in China.

MMC Crest

Last revised: October 2018

Mukden Map


MMC in 1930s

Photo from "A brief History of Mukden Medical College - Fengtian Yike Daxue", 1992, Shenyang, Liaoning. (The old MMC main building, this building, was demolished in the late 1990s or early in the 21st century.)


This 1927 photograph of the College is part of the International Mission Photography Archive at the University of Southern California - which has many other MMC photos.

A history of the Sheng Jing Hospital and Dr Christie's work in Shenyang was published, in Chinese, in 2012. 代医学奠基人司督阁与盛京医院的历史绘卷 / Shengjing yi shi : Dong bei xian dai yi xue dian ji ren Siduge yu Shengjing yi yuan de li shi hui juan. 陈醒哲. 陈醒哲著. ; Xingzhe Chen. 辽宁大学出版社, Shenyang : Liaoning da xue chu ban she / Liaoning University Press, 2012.

In 2013 China Post issued a commemorative postage stamp sheet..