Canadians who graduated in medicine from Edinburgh University 1841-1868



Last revised 10 December 2022.


Canadians who graduated in medicine from the University of Edinburgh 1841-1868

David S. Crawford  Emeritus Librarian, McGill University


In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the University of Edinburgh was a major medical training centre for people (usually men) from many parts of the world. In addition to students from other parts of Europe, between 1744, when Thomas Jarvis from Antigua graduated with a thesis on Affectione Hysterica, to the late 1860s, over 650 students from the Americas graduated in medicine from the university.

The listing below is of Canadian graduates from 1840-1868. A much more detailed listing of the Canadians who graduated prior to 1840 and an explanation of how "Canadians" were identified, is available HERE , The Edinburgh curriculum and the primary medical degree granted changed in 1861 but a few people continued to graduate under the old rules for several years.

Further details on the compilation of both lists and the general reference sources used are available on the earlier listing.

This listing is compiled from: List of the graduates in medicine in the University of Edinburgh, from MDCCV to MDCCCLXVI. Edinburgh: Neill, 1867 and the annual lists of medical graduates published in the Edinburgh Medical Journal.

Any additions or corrections will be gratefully received at david.crawford@mcgill.ca

Doctor of Medicine, M.D.


DE WOLFE , James Ratchford (1818-1901) (On delerium tremens) Nova Scotia. His name is more commonly spelled de Wolf. He was for many years the Medical Superintendent of the Nova Scotia Hospital. He was present at the 1867 meeting that preceded the foundation of the Canadian Medical Association. (DNB) Obituary Maritime Medical News 13(1901):3:104-105

FITCH, Simon (1820-1905) Obituary: Maritime Medical News v.17, 1905 p 380

GORDON, David (1817? - ?) (On ulcers) Nova Scotia. Gordon, who was born in Pictou, remained in Edinburgh and is listed in the 1863 UK Medical Register and the 1881 UK census.

MORRIN, William Daniel (1817-?) (On asthma) Canada. Morrin was born in Quebec City, received an undergraduate degree from Bowdoin College in Maine and subsequently worked in the West Indies. (He died before 1850).

ODELL, George Mountain (1818-1892) (On idiopathic apoplexy) New Brunswick. Odell practiced for many years in Newport, Rhode Island. The Osler Library owns five books that belonged to him, dated 1838. He may be related to William Odell who graduated with an MDCM from McGill College in 1849.


BEDELL, John (On synochus) New Brunswick. He was probably a member of the Bedell family of Woodstock, New Brunswick.


PETERS, Martin Hunter (1820-1887) (On empyema with pneumothorax) New Brunswick. According to the City of Saint John, Peters performed the first operation with anaesthesia in New Brunswick. (Though this honour is also claimed for William Bayard, an 1837 graduate.) He was one of the many children of Charles Jeffery Peters (DCB) and was a cousin of Harry Peters who graduated from Edinburgh in 1840. He practiced in Carleton, N.B. and was the proprietor of the lunatic asylum in St John. (See Peters lineage: five generations of the descendants of DrCharles Peters, of Hempstead.)

RUSSELL, Robert Henry (1819-1882) (On acute pneumonia). Russell is noted in the printed Edinburgh list as being from Ireland - where he was born - but he had lived in Quebec since childhood. He was the brother of James P. Russell (1846) and Francis M. Russell (1853). He was registered (in Lower Canada) in 1843. See: Canniff. In the Montreal Directory for 1868/69 he is listed as being the Quebec [City] Secretary of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lower Canada.

TUPPER, Charles (1821-1915) (On the mechanism and management of parturition, illustrated by a report of 116 cases.) Nova Scotia. One of the "Fathers of Confederation" (DCB)


ALLEN, James (On the principal deformity of the pelvis in relation to parturition). Nova Scotia. Listed in NS Medical Register for 1857

HACKETT, James Stephen (1829-1843) (On asphyxia) Canada. Hackett died in Newmarket, Ontario in June 1872.

PARKER, Daniel McNeill (1822-1907) (On the mechanism and management of parturition) Nova Scotia. Parker took his early training with the earliest Canadian medical graduate of Edinburgh University, William Bruce Almond. He was present at the 1867 meeting that preceded the foundation of the Canadian Medical Association and in 1870 was elected as the 3rd President of the CMA. Obituary Maritime Medical News v. 19:11 1907 pp 438-40 and Parker, William Frederick. Daniel McNeill Parker, MD: his ancestry and a memoir of his life : Toronto : W. Briggs, 1910. (See also: Canadian Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery.)

PELTIER, Hector (1822-1878) (Des retrecissimens de l'uretre) Canada. Peltier came from Montreal and practiced there for many years, (DCB). It is interesting to note that he was allowed to present his thesis in French. In the Montreal Directory for 1868/69 he is listed as being the Montreal Secretary of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Lower Canada.


BAYARD, Edwin (1816- 1875) (On the management of the placenta) Nova Scotia. Not listed in NS Medical Register for 1857 but he attended the first meeting of the Canadian Medical association in 1868 where he was noted as being from St John, New Brunswick.

RUSSELL, John Partington (1821-1890) (On bronchitis) Canada. Russell was licenced to practice in both Upper and Lower Canada in 1846. He was the brother of Robert H Russell (1843) and Francis Russell (1860) and practiced first in Quebec and then in in Toronto.


BUTTS, Henry G (On erysipelas) Canada.

MAGUIRE, Annibal (1826-1899? ) (On acute abcesses of the internal iliac fossa) Canada. He was registered in Quebec (practicing in Montreal) in the 1868 list of members of the Quebec College of Physicians and Surgeons. He apparently moved to Louisiana and lived there until, at least, the 1880 US Census. In the census his first name is spelled Anable.


CARRIER, Joseph (On diseases of the chest) Canada. He was, apparently, from Quebec and married, in Scotland, in 1848. He was registered with the College of Physicians and Surgeons as practicing in Quebec City in 1868. His family name is sometimes written as Carriere.

JARVIS, Henry Fitzgerald. (1825-1898) (On the inductive method of investigation in medicine) Prince Edward Island. Jarvis was the son the Chief Justice of PEI and was born in Malta. He practiced first in Charlottetown, then moved to St John, New Brunswick, and finally, in 1857, returned to PEI to practice as a general practitioner in Summerside. (See also: Canadian Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery.)

WRIGHT, Alfred (On morbid poisons) Nova Scotia. Not listed in NS Medical Register for 1857


KNAPP, Titus William (1825-1877) (Concerning the action of remedies). New Brunswick. Knapp is buried in the Sackville Rural Cemetery.


ARNOLD, Fenwick Williams (1830-1858) (On the surgical treatment of obstructions of the mucus passages) New Brunswick, where he died in Saint John.

BETHUNE, Norman (1822-1892) (On spina bifida) Canada. Bethune was the grandfather of (Henry) Norman Bethune and a professor at Trinity Medical College. (DCB)

JOHNSTON, Louis (On exanthemata) Nova Scotia. Listed in NS Medical Register for 1857 as practicing in Cape Breton.

MACFARLANE, James. (On the plague) Though MacFarlane is listed as being "ab Insula Sancta Lucia" he came from a Quebec family and moved to Quebec just after graduation, marrying there in 1853. He is listed in the 1868 register of members of the College of Physicians and Surgeons as practicing in Quebec City.


BARNSTON, James (1831-1858) (On Scarlatina) America Septentrionali. Barnston was born in St Martin's Falls, Albany River in Hudson Bay (now Norway House, Manitoba) where his father was Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company. After graduation he worked in Scotland and Paris but returned to Montreal where he was appointed the first Professor of Botany at McGill College. He was awarded an ad eundem degree by McGill in 1856. Obituary in Medical Chronicle, or, Montreal Monthly Journal of Medicine and Surgery. v. 6(2) July 1858 pp 90-92. See also DCB


BERRYMAN, Peter James (On puerpal fever) New Brunswick. Probably related to John Berryman (1861).

BURTON, Robert Graves (1831-1920) (Observations on medical cases) Canada. Burton served as a medical officer in the British Army from 1854-1863 when he retired and practiced in England. Obituary, Brit Med J 1920, 2; 30 (3 July 1920). See also: http://www.maltaramc.com/regsurg/b/burtonrg.html

CHRISTIE, Robert (Does vaccine virus become impaired by transmission) Canada

LANE, Edward Wickstead (1822-1889) (On the constitution and management of British hospitals) Canada. Lane remained in England and was the owner of a hydrotherapy spa at Moor Park in Farnham, where he treated Charles Darwin. He was the author of Hydropathy; or, Hygienic medicine: an explanatory essay. Coincidentally, Moore Park became a Canadian military hospital in the First World War.

PARKER, Neville Gray du Vernet (1832-1913) On dyspepsia) New Brunswick. Parker was the son of Neville Parker (DNB) and Elizabeth Wyer; Parker was a Judge of the Supreme Court of New Brunswick. (See:http://tinyurl.com/9l7wpqp ) After graduation Parker joined the British Army; he was appointed Assistant Surgeon, in 1855 and in September 1856 Parker "ceased to do duty, there being no longer occasion for their services". (At the end of the war in the Crimea all the Acting Assistant Surgeons were discharged.) He was in St Andrews (New Brunswick) during the 1891 census and also in Jersey, Channel Islands during their census in the same year. He died in England and does not appear to have practiced as a doctor. See also: http://www.maltaramc.com/staffmo/g/graydevernetpn.html

RUSSELL, Francis McManus (1825 -1859) (On fatty degeneration) Canada. Russell was born in Dublin and came to Canada in early childhood. Professor of Surgery at Trinity Medical College in Toronto and died at the early age of 34.

STREET, James Petrie (1829-1893) (On dyspepsia) New Brunswick. Street obtained a BA from Kings College in Fredericton, New Brunswick and after graduating from Edinburgh he joined the British Army and retired with the honorary rank of Brigade Surgeon in 1879. (SEE: http://maltaramc.com/regsurg/s/streetjp.html and Peterkin)


WALKER, James (1829-1914) (On erysipelas) New Brunswick, Walker was a member of the influential Walker family of Saint John.


JONES, Charles Blackburn (1833-1873) (On simple or lobar pneumonia) Canada. Jones practiced in Toronto and died from chloral hydrate poisoning following an operation. The Candia Lancet ( v. 5 1873 p 313) notes: `We do not wish to lay blame at any man`s door but we cannot refrain from remarking that it is exceedingly unwise to administer chloral hydrate after an operation in which chloral hydrate or ether has been used under any circumstances."

MOORE, Arthur William (On continued fever) Canada

SAVAGE, Thomas Young (1832-1890) (On ovarian dropsy) Canada. Savage (who had already graduated with an MD from McGill in 1854, his thesis at McGill was on "Hernia") practiced in Ontario (In 1869 he was in Thistletown, Toronto.)

THORBURN, James (1830-1905) (On dysentery) Canada. Thorburn practiced in Toronto. Obituary: Canadian Practitioner and Review. v. 30(6) June 1905 pp 345-6. He wrote several books on medical examinations for life insurance and was present at the first meeting of the Canadian Medical Association in 1868.


GREGORY, Thomas Archer (1834-1881) (On miscarriage) New Brunswick. Gregory died "when he was thrown from his wagon at City Hall Ferry Landing [in Fredericton] and killed, the cause a runaway horse." (See: http://loyalistfamilies.com/surname/macrae/ )

STURGES, Montague James (On the history and causes of epidemics) Nova Scotia. He remained in England after graduation and is listed in the UK Medical Register up to 1891.


DAVIES, William Henry (1834-1914 ) (On uterine hæmorrhage) Nova Scotia. Was working in California in 1876, where he died.

DORAN, James (1834-1897) (On struma) Canada. Doran was born in Quebec City and after graduation he joined the British Army and retired with the honorary rank of Brigadier Surgeon in 1880.

HAMILTON, George Albert (1833- ? ) (On epidemics) New Brunswick. He attended the first meeting of the Canadian Medical association in 1868 and was noted as being from Saint John.

SEWELL, James Arthur (1834-1899) (On typhus fever) Canada. He actually graduated in September 1856 but is listed with the 1857 graduates; he was the son of James Arthur Sewell, who graduated from Edinburgh in 1833 and brother of Colin Sewell who graduated in 1864. .He served with the Army Medical Department in India during the1857 Mutiny. He later practiced in London, England and was registered there in 1877. (See: Scottish Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 4. 1899, pp. 165-166.)

TODD, William Henry (1832-1894) (On podophylline and its sources) New Brunswick. He was listed as living in St Stephen, NB in 1871.


GOSSIP, Charles John (1837-1919) (On conception) Nova Scotia. Gossip practiced in Windsor and Halifax and was connected to the Halifax Dispensary.

MITCHELL, Robert (1834-1905) (Retention of the urine, its causes and treatment.) Nova Scotia. Affectionately known as 'Dr. Bob', he returned to Amherst, Nova Scotia after completion of his studies and set up a private medical practice while serving for many years as physician and surgeon to the Dorchester Penitentiary. Some of his archives are at Dalhousie University. MS-13-27. He was the son of Dr Samuel Mitchell of Wallace, NB.


MOREN, Arthur (1838?-1883) (On the causes and pathology of epidemic cholera) Nova Scotia. Moren practiced in Halifax and he was the physician on Sandford Fleming`s 1872 Pacific Expedition. See: http://www.electricscotland.com/history/canada/ocean/index.htm ) At the time of his death he was the City Health Officer of Halifax.

RACEY, John (1834-1906) (On certain deposits of pigment, their causes, sources and chemical characters) Canada. He was the son of Racey (1832) and is listed in the 1901 Canadian census as living in Quebec City and Maude Abbott reports him living in Johnville, Quebec at about the same time. He was instrumental in the founding of the Jeffery Hale's Hospital and was one of the hospital's first Governors; he retired in 1885 to live on a farm.


BERRYMAN, John (1828-1900) (On excision of joints) New Brunswick. Berryman was an intimate friend of James Y Simpson, the pioneer of anaesthesia, and was in charge of a military hospital during the US Civil War. He practiced in Saint John. Obituary: Maritime Medical News 12(11), November 1900 p.412. Probably related to Peter Berryman (1853)

CUMMING, Kenneth William (On cataract) Canada. Cumming is listed in the UK Medical Register in 1863, practicing in Surrey.

DOUGLAS, Campbell Millis (1840-1909) On polysarcia) Canada. Douglas, surgeon, soldier, writer, inventor and sportsman was the son of Dr George Douglas, superintendent of the Grosse Ile quarantine station (1836-64). He entered the medical corps of the British army in 1862 and saw service in Burma, India and Canada. As medical officer to the expedition to the Little Andaman Islands in 1867, he was awarded the Victoria Cross for piloting a gig through a raging sea to relieve 17 of his comrades who were under attack by hostile natives. Douglas was awarded the VC for acting “in an intrepid and seamanlike manner, cool to a degree, as if what he was doing was an ordinary act of everyday life.” In addition to the VC he was also awarded the Royal Humane Society Silver Medal. He retired from the military in 1882 and settled in Lakefield, Ontario. He served as a medical officer during the Northwest Rebellion in 1885. His posting to Saskatoon was reached after a 320 km trip down the South Saskatchewan River in a collapsible canoe of his own invention. In 1894 he returned to England and a retired pay posting in the British army. (See: Canadian Encyclopedia and Peterkin)


MACLEAN, Donald (1839-1903) (Notes of surgical cases from the clinical wards of the Royal Infirmary) Canada. Maclean practiced in Kingston and in January 1865 became Professor of the Institute of Medicine, Queen’s University. (Obituary: Canada Lancet v. 37 1903 p 81, 378.

MORSE, Clinton James (1840-1911) (On variola) Nova Scotia. (His obituary gives him the first names of Charles James). Morse practiced in Amherst, Nova Scotia and Montreal. Obituary. Canadian Medical Association Journal v.1(12) December 1911 p1220.

SMITH, Peleg Wiswall (1828-1880) (On scarlatina) New Brunswick. Smith practiced in Digby, Nova Scotia.

WHYTE, George (On diphtheria) Canada. Whyte remained in Scotland and practiced in Elgin until at least 1887.


GILLESPIE, James Robert (1837?-1866) (On changes in the blood as regards gout and rheumatism) Canada. Gillespie moved to Australia and in 1883 is listed as practicing in Melbourne. He died in Queensland.

LINDSAY, Edward (Edouard) (1836-1876) (On dysentery and its complications) Canada. Lindsay, the son of Errol Boyd Lindsay, Notary Public of Quebec City and Marie Louise Perrault, was educated at the Petit Seminaire in Quebec City and was elected a Congreganistant of La Congregation du Petit-Seminaire de Québec in 1851. After graduation from Edinburgh, he returned to Canada to practice in St Eustache. He was present at the 1867 meeting that led to the foundation of the Canadian Medical Association - Association médicale canadienne and among its first members.

MAXHAM, John William (1842-1913) (On idiopathic dyspepsia) Canada. Maxham was born in Quebec City and after graduation joined the British Army. He retired in 1898 and died in Southsea near Southampton.

WALKER, Thomas (1840-1926) (Notes on cases from the Royal Infirmary) (New Brunswick) Walker practiced in Saint John, according to his obituary "he was a descendent ... of the famous Pendrall [sic] (Pendrell) brothers who were instrumental in saving the life of King Charles after the battle of Worcester. The king was so grateful for this service that he pensioned the heirs of his benefactors for all time. This pension Dr Walker was receiving up to the time of his death." Obituary: Canadian Medical Association Journal v 16(2) February 1926.


BARSS, Andrew de Wolf (1842-1924) (On scarlatina) Nova Scotia. Barss practiced in Wolfville, Nova Scotia and he was much involved with Acadia University, from where he had received a B. A. Obituary: Canadian Medical Association Journal ; 14(10): 1924(October), 994–995.

JONES, Andrew Pugsley (On rubella) New Brunswick. He graduated from Acadia University in 1860 and had died before 1889.

LIVINGSTONE, Robert Hamilton (1842? - ) (On the treatment of false joint) New Brunswick. He was living in Saint John, New Brunswick in 1869 and is listed there in the 1871 census..

MONTIZAMBERT, Frederick (1849-1929) (On the prophylaxis of hydrophobia) Canada. In 1865 Montizambert applied for the position of physician at the Marine and Emigrant Hospital in Quebec and in 1866 was appointed as Assistant Director of the Grosse Ile Quarantine Station.He became Director in 1869 and spent his working life improving public health in Canada. In 1899 he became the first Director General of Public Health for the Dominion Government. In 1891 he was elected president of the American Public Health Association and in 1893 France and Mexico also recognized the international scope of his pioneering work by making him an honorary member of the Société Française d'Hygiène and the Academia Nacional de Medicina of Mexico. He became a companion of the Imperial Service Order in 1903 and a companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1916. (DCB) Obituary Canadian Medical Association Journal v.21(6): 1929 (December) p.747–749.

SEWELL, Colin Charles (1841-1909) (On the surgical treatment of aneurism) Canada. Sewell practiced in Quebec City, initially with his father and is listed, in the UK Medical Register, as being on rue St Ursule in 1891. He attended the first meeting of the Canadian Medical Association in 1868 and was involved in the foundation of the Association. He was awarded an ad eundem degree by McGill in 1869.. He was the son of James Arthur Sewell who graduated from Edinburgh in 1833 and brother of James Sewell who graduated in 1857. In 1909 he was the Surgeon Colonel of the Royal Canadian Artillery. Though the Edinburgh lists note the order of his given names as Colin Charles they were probably Charles Colin; he is often listed with them in this order but was known as "Colin Sewell".

WICKWIRE, William Nathan 1839-1911 (On pneumonia) Nova Scotia. Wickwire was the medical partner of Sir Charles Tupper and later the port quarantine officer in Halifax for 30 years. He attended the first meeting of the Canadian Medical Association in 1868. He retired in 1889 and devoted himself to business; his wife was a member of the Alexander Keith brewing family. Obituary: Canadian Medical Association Journal  1(6):1911 (June); 582. (See also: Canadian Biographical Dictionary and Portrait Gallery.)


In 1858 the regulations regarding medical degrees were changed by the Scottish Universities Commission and this change took effect on 4th February 1861. Apart from people whose degree was still in process, the primary medical degree at Edinburgh became MB, CM. An MD could be obtained at a later date if certain conditions were met. (Details at: Edinburgh Medical Journal, v. 11; October 1865. pp 348-365 and in Alphabetical list of graduates of the University of Edinburgh from 1859 to 1888. Edinburgh, Thin. 1889. pp 8-11.)

Bachelor of Medicine and Master of Surgery, M.B and C.M.


WARBURTON, William Pleace (1844-1911). (On pleurisy) Prince Edward Island. After graduation Warburton joined the Indian Medical Service and retired as a Colonel. In 1898, he was made a Companion of the Star of India.From 1899 -1910 he was the Medical Superintendent of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.(Obituary)


FAIRWEATHER, William Augustus (1843-1916) (New Brunswick) Fairweather apparently practiced in Rothesay and Saint John.

HEWSTON, Alexander (New Brunswick). In January 1868 he emigrated to India and eventually settled at Manantoddy where he invested in coffee cultivation and gold mining, which proved financially unprofitable. (See: Provincial Archives of New Brunswick, Adelaide Hughson Baxter fonds )

HOLDEN, Charles (1845-1906) (On reflex action) New Brunswick. Holden graduated with honours and obtained his MD degree in 1869, He practiced in Saint John, NB. Obituary Maritime Medical News 185 (May 1906), p 190-191.


ALLISON, Lucius Cary (1845-1908) New Brunswick. He was in practice in Saint John for over 30 years. Obituary: Maritime Medical News v. 20, no. 12 (Dec. 1908) p 479.

MACLAREN, Robert Philip New Brunswick. Maclaren (or M'Laren) was subsequently awarded an Edinburgh MD, in 1871. He is listed in the 1874 Medical Register as practicing in Liverpool, England.